A current cancer diagnosis posed a significant risk for severe outcomes (ICU admission and death) over the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior COVID-19 vaccination significantly reduced the risk of death amongst cancer patients who develop COVID-19.
Having a COVID-19 vaccination reduces the likelihood of dying from COVID and the size of this effect differs across different patient groups. In particular, the benefits of vaccination are especially great for some of those who otherwise would have had the greatest risk of SARS-CoV-2 mortality.
Through three COVID-19 surges, these data illustrate the stepwise increase in overall mortality rates by age up to ≥90 years. Though intubated patients had differentially higher mortality rates during the delta wave, mortality rates among those patients who required intubation peaked among those aged 70 to 79 years during all three surges. If patients were sick enough to require mechanical ventilation, mortality rates were remarkably consistent regardless of vaccination status.
This research used machine learning strategies to explore the associations of demographic and comorbidity risk factors with mortality in a large sample of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The 10 risk factors with the strongest overall associations with mortality, reflecting both their main and interactive effects, were age, uncomplicated hypertension, insurance status, site (health system), renal failure, diabetes, vaccination status (binary and number of immunizations), complicated hypertension, and sex.
Summary: This retrospective cohort study of 60-day readmission included 105,543 COVID-19 survivors at 21 US healthcare systems who were discharged alive between February 2020 and November 2021 and later readmitted. The all-cause readmission rate was 15 percent. Factors associated with readmission included positive smoking history, male sex, government insurance, co-morbidity burden, longer index admissions, and diagnoses at index admission (e.g., cancer, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease).