Below are the 22 research papers UW-CTRI published from January-July 2022. For a complete list of all UW-CTRI publications since inception, click here.
Note: Names in bold are current UW-CTRI employees.
- Baker TB, Burris JL, Fiore MC. (2022) Helping African American Individuals Quit Smoking: Finally, Some Progress.2022;327(22):2192-2194.
Summary: The researchers applauded a new study, also published in JAMA, of 500 African Americans that shows that active varenicline plus culturally appropriate counseling more than doubled quit rates, even though they were people who mostly smoked fewer cigarettes per day. They urged healthcare providers to use electronic health records to reach out to every patient who smokes and offer this combination treatment to Black patients. They encouraged the FDA to officially ban menthols.
- Baker TB, Fiore MC. (2022) Combined Varenicline With Nicotine Patch and Extended Duration of Therapy for Smoking Cessation—Reply. 327(4):391-392.
Summary: In this reply, the authors assert that it remains important that standardized smoking treatments are identified that can be delivered routinely in busy health-care settings and can yield strong benefits. After all, the greatest constraint to helping patients quit smoking is almost certainly the low rates of smoking treatment delivery and engagement that occur in health care.
- Bray M, Chang Y, Baker TB, Jorenby DE, Carney RM, Fox L, Pham G, Stoneking F, Smock N, Amos CI, Bierut L, Chen L-S. (2022) The Promise of Polygenic Risk Prediction in Smoking Cessation: Evidence from Two Treatment Trials. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Online February 16, 2022, ntac043.
Summary: There is a potential for polygenic risk scores to inform future clinical medicine, and a great need for evidence on whether these scores predict clinically meaningful outcomes. This meta-analysis provides early evidence for the potential utility of using them to predict the outcomes of attempts to quit smoking.
- Burris JL, Borger TN, Baker TB, Bernstein SL, Ostroff JS, Rigotti NA, Joseph AM. (2022) Proposing a Model of Proactive Outreach to Advance Clinical Research and Care Delivery for Patients Who Use Tobacco. Journal of General Internal Medicine.
Summary: This commentary introduces a comprehensive yet flexible model of proactive outreach and describes how proactive outreach can optimize clinical research and care delivery in these domains: (1) identifying the population, (2) offering treatment, and (3) delivering treatment. Adoption of the proposed proactive outreach model could improve the precision and rigor with which tobacco cessation research and tobacco treatment programs report data, which could have a positive effect on patient care.
- Buu A, Tong Z, Cai Z, Li R, Yang JJ, Jorenby DE, Piper ME. (2022) Subtypes of Dual Users of Combustible and Electronic Cigarettes: Longitudinal Changes in Product Use and Dependence Symptomatology. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Online June 23, 2022.
Summary: This study characterizes subtypes of people who both smoke and vape, based on the dynamic interactions between cigarette use and e-cigarette use, as well as product-specific trajectories of dependence. People who predominantly vape appeared to engage in substitution, as they decreased their smoking and increased their e-cigarette dependence. Smoking bans may promote substitution of cigarettes with e-cigarettes.
- Cai X, Coffman DL, Piper ME, Runze L. (2022) Estimation and Inference for the Mediation Effect in a Time-Varying Mediation Model. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2022;22:113.
Summary: We developed a new analytic approach, using time-varying mediation analyses, that allows us to study mediation when the outcome and mediators both vary over time. We share the analytic code in the R package of statistical programming so others can analyze time-varying outcomes and mediators.
- Chakraborti Y, Coffman DL, Piper ME. (2022) Time-Varying Mediation of Pharmacological Smoking Cessation Treatments on Smoking Lapse Via Craving, Cessation Fatigue and Negative Mood. Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
Summary: Researchers reported a statistically significant time-varying mediation effect of varenicline on smoking status through craving. They didn’t find significant time-varying mediation effects through negative mood and cessation fatigue. This study supports the importance of craving suppression in order to quit smoking. They identified specific time points when withdrawal symptoms increased that would likely benefit from targeted interventions.
- Cox CM, Westrick J, McCarthy DE, Carpenter MJ, Mathew AR. (2022) Practice Quit Attempts: Scoping Review of a Novel Intervention Strategy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. January 2022, 83(1), 115-125.
Summary: Researchers conducted a systematic literature search of 3,879 articles on practice quit attempts. They found that fostering practice quit attempts for people trying to quit smoking, through behavioral and pharmacological interventions, offers a promising technique for cessation induction that warrants future research.
- D’Angelo H, Hohl SD, Rolland B, Adsit RT, Pauk D, Fiore MC, Baker TB. (2022) Reach and Effectiveness of the NCI Cancer Moonshot-funded Cancer Center Cessation Initiative. Translational Behavioral Medicine. Online February 23, 2022.
Summary: Researchers found that engagement by leadership at cancer centers had a favorable impact on the reach of those centers to help cancer patients quit smoking. Investment in technology may also help cancer centers reach more patients to help them quit smoking. Understanding which implementation and intervention strategies facilitate greater cessation treatment reach and effectiveness could lead to improved outcomes among cancer patients who smoke.
- Heiden BT, Smock N, Pham G, Chen J, Baker TB, Bierut LJ, Chen L-S. (2022) Assessment of Formal Tobacco Treatment and Smoking Cessation in Dual Users of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes. Thorax. Online July 20, 2022;0:1–7.
Summary: The researchers found that dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes benefit from formal tobacco treatment. Clinicians should consider offering formal tobacco treatment to such patients, though future trials are needed.
- Hohl SD, Bird JE, Nguyen CVT, Pauk D, D’Angelo H, Minion M, Adsit RT, Fiore MC, Nolan MB, Rolland B. (2022) Operationalizing Leadership and Clinician Buy-In to Implement Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Programs in Routine Oncology Care: A Mixed-Method Study of the U.S. Cancer Center Cessation Initiative. Current Oncology. 29(4), c. March 29, 2022.
Summary: At least 75 percent of participating cancer centers secured administrative, clinical, and IT leadership buy-in and support. Six themes emerged from interviews on what factors facilitated their efforts to help cancer patients quit smoking: engaging leadership, access to resources, leveraging federal funding support to build leadership interest, designating champions, identifying training needs, and ensuring staff roles and IT workflows.
- Hohl SD, Shoenbill KA, Taylor KL, Minion M, Bates-Pappas GE, Hayes RB, Nolan MB, Simmons VN, Steinberg MB, Park ER, Ashing K, Beneventi D, Sanderson Cox L, Goldstein O, King A, Kotsen C, Presant CA, Sherman SE, Sheffer CE, Warren GW, Adsit RT, Bird JE, D’Angelo H, Fiore MC, Nguyen CVT, Pauk D, Rolland B, Rigotti NA. (2022) The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Tobacco Treatment Program Implementation at NCI-Designated Cancer Centers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
Summary: This work describes how NCI-designated cancer centers participating in the Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) adapted to challenges to sustain evidence-based tobacco use treatment programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This work offers a model for resilience and rapid transition to remote tobacco treatment services delivery and proposes a policy and research agenda for telehealth services as an approach to sustaining evidence-based tobacco treatment programs.
- Ives K, Christiansen BA, Nolan MB, Kaye JT, Fiore MC. (2022) Nine Years of Smoking Data from Incarcerated Men: A Call to Action for Tobacco Dependence Interventions. Preventive Medicine Reports.
Summary: Nearly all people in prison return to smoking shortly after release. Smoking prevalence prior to prison remains very high and is not changing. Most prison survey respondents do not consider themselves addicted. Prison survey respondents have become less interested in help to stay tobacco free. Survey results suggest possible elements for tobacco interventions.
- Johnson AL, Schlam TR, Baker TB, Piper ME. (2022) Understanding What Changes Adults in a Smoking Cessation Study Believe They Need to Make to Quit Smoking: A Qualitative Analysis of Pre- and Post-Quit Perceptions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Online June 23, 2022.
Summary: Prior to quitting, more than a third of participants were unable to identify changes to increase cessation success. The others said they focused on triggers and cues for smoking. Participants who quit reported using the strategies they learned from counselors—such as the 4 D strategies (delay, drink water, deep breathing, distract), avoiding cues to smoke, changing routine, and getting support. Using FDA-approved medications was the least-reported theme.
- Kohen CB, Cofresí RU, Bartholow BD, Piasecki TM. (2022) Alcohol Craving in the Natural Environment: Moderating Roles of Cue Exposure, Drinking, and Alcohol Sensitivity. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.
Summary: Craving during drinking episodes in the natural environment is magnified by the presence of alcohol cues, potentially contributing to the maintenance or acceleration of drinking episodes. Moreover, people who drink with lower sensitivity may be particularly susceptible to the combined effects of cue exposure and post-drinking status on alcohol craving.
- LeFoll B, Piper ME, Fowler CD. (2022) Tobacco and Nicotine Use. Nature Reviews Disease Primer. 8(19).
Summary: Given that the majority of people who smoke ultimately relapse, the researchers asserted that it’s important to enhance the reach of available interventions and to continue to develop novel interventions. These efforts associated with innovative policy regulations (aimed at reducing nicotine content or eliminating tobacco products) have the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and nicotine use and their enormous adverse impact on population health.
- McCarthy DE, Baker TB, Zehner ME, Adsit RA, Kim N, Zwaga D, Coates K, Wallenkamp H, Nolan M, Steiner M, Skora A, Kastman C, Fiore MC. (2022) A Comprehensive Electronic Health Record-Enabled Smoking Treatment Program: Evaluating Reach and Effectiveness in Primary Care in a Multiple Baseline Design. Preventive Medicine. Online May 28, 2022.
Summary: Implementation of a comprehensive, opt-out, chronic-care program aimed at all patients who smoke was associated with increases in the rates of pharmacotherapy and counseling delivery and quitting smoking. Proactive outreach may help reduce disparities in treatment access. Telephone treatment reach was particularly high in historically underserved groups, including African American, Hispanic, and Medicaid-eligible patients.
- Nuako A, Liu J, Pham G, Smock N, James A, Baker TB, Bierut L, Colditz G, Chen L-S. (2022) Quantifying Rural Disparity in Healthcare Utilization in the United States: Analysis of a Large Midwestern Healthcare System. PLOS One. Online February 10, 2022.
Summary: Within the large healthcare system, patients in rural clinics had lower outpatient healthcare utilization compared to their urban counterparts despite having potentially elevated health needs reflected by a higher number of unique health diagnoses documented in their electronic health records after adjusting for multiple factors.
- Piper ME, Maddox R, Castro Y, Hinds JT, Henderson PN, Clark H, Guy MC, Choi K. (2022) Lessons Learned on Addressing Racism: Recommendations from The Society for Research on Nicotine & Tobacco’s Racial Equity Task Force. Online June 25, 2022.
Summary: In this editorial, the authors review the recommendations of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco’s Racial Equity Task Force on how to address individual and institutional racism within academia in general and within the field of commercial tobacco and nicotine science.
- Ramsey AT, Baker TB, Stoneking F, Smock N, Chen J, Pham G, James AS, Colditz GA, Govindan R, Bierut LJ, Chen L-S. (2022) Increased Reach and Effectiveness With a Low-Burden Point-of-Care Tobacco Treatment Program in Cancer Clinics. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Online May 17, 2022.
Summary: This study of 13,651 oncology patients examined whether a health system could leverage their electronic health system to identify patients who smoke and offer help to quit. It worked. The system had a low burden on oncology staff and was delivered at point-of-care. This improved access to (and the impact of) evidence-based treatment to quit smoking. It could be implemented at cancer centers across the country to bolster reach to patients who smoke to help them quit, improving cancer outcomes.
- Slutske WS, Davis CN, Lynskey MT, Heath AC, Martin NG. (2022) An Epidemiologic, Longitudinal, and Discordant-Twin Study of the Association Between Gambling Disorder and Suicidal Behaviors. Clinical Psychological Science. Online January 10, 2022.
Summary: The association of suicidal thoughts with disordered gambling was non-causally explained by common genetic influences among women but not men. Conversely, there was evidence consistent with a potentially causal influence of disordered gambling on suicide attempts among men only. This might have been related to gambling-related financial problems. The causes of the association with disordered gambling differed for suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt (and differed by gender).
- Yang J, Kuo J, Su W-C, Jorenby DE, Piper ME, Buu A. (2022) A New Statistical Model for Longitudinal Ecological Momentary Assessment Data on Dual Use of Electronic and Combustible Cigarettes. Methods in Addiction Research. Online January 31, 2022.
Summary: This study proposed a new statistical method to analyze data from the measurement burst design (eg hourly, daily measurements are embedded in a larger longitudinal study). The proposed method is highly applicable as it can be easily implemented by substance use researchers and the results can be straightforwardly interpreted. The results suggest that e-cigarette use may play a role in promoting a long-term reduction in smoking among dual users.