Below are the research papers published by UW-CTRI in 2018. For a complete list of UW-CTRI publications, click here.
Note: Names in bold are current UW-CTRI employees.
Allen AM, Carlson S, Eberly LE, Hatsukami D, Piper ME. Use of Hormonal Contraceptives and Smoking Cessation: A Preliminary Report. Addictive Behaviors. 2018;76:236-42.
Summary: This preliminary study examined differences in withdrawal symptoms and cessation between women using hormonal contraceptives (HC), women not using hormonal contraceptives (no-HC) and men. Compared to both no-HC and men, the HC group had significantly greater withdrawal. During the first week of attempted abstinence, craving declined in HC and in men, but increased in no-HC. At end of treatment, the HC group was at 3.73 times higher odds of being abstinent compared to men. However, there were no group differences in abstinence rates by 26 weeks after the quit date and beyond.
Baker TB, Fraser DL, Kobinsky K, Adsit R, Smith SS, Khalil L, Alaniz KM, Sullivan TE, Johnson ML, Fiore MC. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives to Low Income Pregnant Women to Engage in Smoking Cessation Treatment: Effects on Post-Birth Abstinence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2018;86(5):464-73.
Summary: In this study of more than 1,000 pregnant women who smoked, moderate incentive payments for engagement in smoking treatment (a mean of ≈$214 paid) increased low-income pregnant smokers’ engagement and success in smoking-cessation treatment.
Berg KM, Smith SS, Piper ME, Fiore MC, Jorenby DE. Tobacco Treatment in Primary Care: Identifying Differences in Rates of Invitation to Participate. Wisconsin Medical Journal. 2018;117(3):111-115.
Summary: This secondary analysis assessed the differences in rates of invitation to receive tobacco treatment, based on patient characteristics from 11 primary-care clinics from two health systems in Wisconsin from 2010-2013. The study found a significant difference in smoking cessation invitation rates amongst groups, despite efforts to invite all smokers. The average invitation rate by the two health systems was 67%.
Berg KM, Jorenby DE, Baker TB, Fiore MC. Triple Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline, Nicotine Patch and Nicotine Lozenge: A Pilot Study to Assess Tolerability, Satisfaction and End-of-Treatment Quit Rates. Journal of Smoking Cessation. 2018;13(3):145-153.
Summary: This observational study examined ‘triple therapy’ (varenicline + nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge) in 36 smokers trying to quit. Researchers explored tolerability, via adverse events (AEs) elicited at each of nine phone assessments. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction rates, medication changes and self-reported quit rates at week 12. Thirty-five of 36 participants reported at least one AE. Participants were highly satisfied with their medications, and 58% reported quitting at 12 weeks, with 38% reporting prolonged abstinence.
Buckless B, McCann M, Christiansen B, Forster J, Joseph A, Rhodes K. Feasibility of a Systems Approach to Treat Commercial Tobacco Dependence within American Indian Health Clinics. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research . 2018;25(3)52-77.
Summary: Three American Indian health clinics in Minnesota implemented an evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included provider education and customized clinical-system tools. Clinic staff were assessed with pre/post-training evaluations and annual assessments. Results indicated self-reported improvements in the rate of identifying smoking status (57% to 89%), documenting smoking status (from 60% to 80%), and providing evidence-based treatments such as pharmacotherapy (from 36% to 78%).
Burgess-Hull A, Roberts L, Piper M, Baker T. The Social Networks of Smokers Attempting to Quit: An Empirically Derived and Validated Classification. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2018 Feb;32(1):64-75.
Summary: This study suggests that network features, especially those entailing exposure to smoking cues and contexts, heighten risk for smoking-cessation failure. The Socially Disconnected subgroup was characterized by little social interaction, low levels of stress, and low exposure to social environmental smoking cues, and had the highest probability of successful cessation at one week compared with other subgroups. At six months posttreatment, its members had higher quit rates than members of the High Stress/High Contact subgroup and the Risky Friends and Low Contact subgroup.
Buu A, Hu Y-H, Piper ME, Lin H-C. The Association Between E-Cigarette Use Characteristics and Combustible Cigarette Consumption and Dependence Symptoms: Results from a National Longitudinal Study. Addictive Behaviors. 2018;84:69-74.
Summary: Higher frequency of e-cigarette use was associated with lower consumption of combustible cigarettes and dependence symptoms, controlling for baseline cigarette use and other confounders. Given the frequency of e-cigarette use, the feature of voltage adjustment was not significantly associated with any of the cigarette use outcomes. E-cigarette flavoring, on the other hand, was associated with lower quantity of cigarette use. Exclusive smokers who start using e-cigarettes do indeed change the frequency and quantity with which they smoke cigarettes. E-cigarette use may also help reduce dependence symptoms.
Chen L-S, Zawertaillo L, Piasecki TM, Kapiro J, Foreman M, Elliott HR, David SP, Bergen AW, Baurley JW, Tyndale RF, Baker TB, Bierut LJ, Saccone NL. Leveraging Genomic Data In Smoking Cessation Trials In the Era of Precision Medicine: Why and How. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2018;20(4):414-424.
Summary: This article outlines a framework for the consistent integration of biological data/samples into smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy trials, aligned with the objectives of the recently unveiled Precision Medicine Initiative. The goal was to support treatment researchers to consider biosample collection and genotyping for their existing samples—as well as integrating genetic analyses into their study design in order to realize precision medicine in the treatment of nicotine dependence.
Christiansen BA, Carbin J, TerBeek E, Fiore MC. Helping Smokers with Severe Mental Illness Who Do Not Want to Quit. Substance Use and Misuse. 2018;53(6):949-962.
Summary: Brief, motivational interventions increased both engagement in quit-smoking treatment as well as abstinence among smokers with significant mental illness. Compared to control participants, smokers receiving the intervention were more likely to be abstinent three months after quitting (biochemically verified, intent to treat, 8.5% vs. 1.0%). They were also more likely to accept four more quitting preparation sessions (intent to treat, 50.8% vs 29.2%) but were not more likely to call a telephone tobacco quit line.
Deng S, Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Baker TB, Bolt DM. Extreme Response Style and the Measurement of Intra-Individual Variability in Affect. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2018 Mar-Apr;53(2):199-218.
Summary: Extreme response style (ERS) is the tendency for survey respondents to use extreme answers (all 1’s or all 7’s on a 1-7 rating scale) when they answer questions. This can skew results for researchers. In this paper that looked at how to identify and control for ERS, researchers studied the rating scale responses of individual patients during a quit attempt. Researchers found that being able to factor in individual’s actual tendency to use extreme responses strengthens the relation between people’s emotional ratings and the likelihood that they will return to smoking.
Glasheen C, Johnson EO, Saccone NL, Lutz SM, Baker TB, McNeil DW, Marazita ML, Hokanson JE, Bierut LJ, Hancock DB. Is the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence Invariant Across Secular Trends in Smoking? A Question for Cross-Birth Cohort Analysis of Nicotine Dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2018 Feb 6;185:127-132.
Summary: Researchers examined the measurement invariance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) across different cohorts of smokers. That is, whether they measure the same thing (invariance) or different things (non-invariance) when used in different groups. An example of measurement non-invariance would be if an IQ test in English were used with English speakers in one sample and with primarily Spanish speakers in a second sample. Researchers found non-invariance likely has a negligible impact on research results when different types of smokers are combined.
Gorrilla A. The Importance of Smoking Cessation to Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin. 2018;1:32-38.
Summary: This article reviews the literature on how smoking contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the benefits of cessation to reducing CVD risk, and provides an overview of treatments for tobacco dependence. It covers updates in the treatment of tobacco use for patients with CVD, including the safety of pharmacotherapy for patients with CVD, and how to address electronic nicotine-delivery systems in treatment.
Keller P, Boyle RG, Lien RK, Christiansen B, Kobinsky K. Engaging Smokeless Tobacco Users in Population-Based Cessation Services: Findings from an Observational Study. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. Epub 2018 June 7.
Summary: Although telephone quitlines are effective for helping smokeless tobacco (ST) users quit, ST users are underrepresented among quitline participants. After ClearWay Minnesota implemented multiple changes to its quitline service (QUITPLAN® Services), utilization increased dramatically, including by ST users. A 2-week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy and the ability to register for services online were popular among Minnesotans reporting ST use. This study suggests that quitline services can be designed to increase participation by ST users.
McCarthy DE, Cook JW, Leyro TM, Minami H, Bold KW (2018). Affective Determinants of Smoking. Chapter in the book, Affective Determinants of Health-Related Behavior. Edited by Williams DM, Rhodes RE, Conner MT. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 286-310.
Summary: Individual differences in affective processing, such as anhedonia, anxiety sensitivity, distress intolerance, and emotion dysregulation enhance risk for tobacco use and moderate affect–smoking relations. The strength of affect–smoking relations seems to depend on methodological and contextual factors in important ways. Extant and developing treatments targeting affective processes show promise as tobacco cessation interventions. Theoretical models and empirical evidence support the importance of affective processes in smoking and suggest potential affect-focused interventions.
McCarthy DE, Minami H, Bold K, Yeh V, Chapman G. Momentary Assessment of Impulsive Choice and Impulsive Action: Reliability, Stability, and Correlates. Addictive Behaviors. 2018 Aug;83:130-135. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
Summary: Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons—and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in outpatient assessments—is not known, however. Researchers collected valid data on impulsive choice at 70% of scheduled reports and valid data on impulsive action on 55% of scheduled reports, on average. Results suggest that meaningful variance in impulsive choice and action can be captured, but that additional measure refinement is needed.
McCarthy DE, Versella, MV. Quitting Failure and Success With and Without Using Medication: Latent Classes of Abstinence and Adherence to Nicotine Monotherapy, Combination Therapy, and Varenicline. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2018 August 9.
Summary: Secondary analyses of a three-arm randomized comparative trial of nicotine patch, varenicline, and combination nicotine patch and lozenge among 1086 adult daily smokers were conducted. Adherence varied across treatments, and was lowest for nicotine lozenge in combination nicotine-replacement therapy. Varenicline, as well as combination nicotine patch + lozenge, are less likely to be used as directed and may not increase first-month abstinence better than patch alone when taken adherently.
Minami H, Mindt M, Fine M, Hecht J, Bloom E, Vieira C, McCarthy DE, Brown R, Nahvi S, Donnelly R, Brinkman H, Wetter D, D’Aquila E, McClain L, Kennedy K, Arnsten J, Price L, Thomas J. Rationale, Design and Pilot Feasibility Results of a Smartphone-Assisted, Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Smokers with Mood Disorders: Project mSMART MIND. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2018 Mar;66:36-44.
Summary: Researchers developed a smartphone-assisted mindfulness intervention to quit smoking, as well as the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized-controlled trial targeting smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. Results from the pilot feasibility study (N=8) showed that participants practiced mindfulness an average of 3.4 times/day (≥3min), completed 72% of prompted reports, and submitted 68% of requested CO videos. Participants reported that daily mindfulness practice was helpful for both managing mood and quitting smoking.
Mitchell CC, Piper ME, Korcarz CE, Hanson K, Weber J, Fiore MC, Baker TB, Stein JH. Echogenicity of the Carotid Arterial Wall in Active Smokers. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography. 2018 May;34(3):161-168.
Summary: This pilot study evaluated new methodology to better understand specific ways smoking might affect cardiovascular health. While factors such as smoking, weight, and age were associated with the health of patients’ carotid artery walls, smoking heaviness was not associated with carotid wall health when controlling for all other risk factors. This study demonstrated that testing carotid artery wall health in relation to smoking is feasible.
Mundt MP, Baker TB, Fraser DL, Smith SS, Piper ME, Fiore MC. Paying Low-Income Smokers to Quit? Cost-effectiveness of Incentivizing Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line Engagement for Medicaid Recipients Who Smoke. Value in Health. September 2018.
Summary: Researchers found the use of modest financial incentives to engage with the Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line is a cost-effective option for increasing smoking quit rates among Medicaid recipients. The “Striving to Quit” study randomized 1,900 Medicaid recipients to either a control group or to a group offering financial incentives to take up to five calls from the quit line. Because of financial incentives, 22 percent of the incentive-group participants had biochemically verified abstinence at six months compared to 14 percent of control group participants.
Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Kobinsky K, Jorenby DE. Dual Users Compared to Smokers; Demographics, Dependence, and Biomarkers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2018. 2018 Oct 26.
Summary: In this community sample, dual users are supplementing their smoking with e-cigarette use. Dual users, versus smokers, smoked fewer cigarettes per day and delayed their first cigarette of the day, but did not differ in quitting intentions. Dual users were more likely to be white, younger, have more than a high school education and have a psychiatric history. Dual users also smoked significantly fewer cigarettes and had lower levels of NNAL (a carcinogen), but they did not differ from exclusive smokers in carbon monoxide or cotinine levels, suggesting that they supplemented their nicotine intake via e-cigarettes.
Piper ME, Cook JW, Schlam TR, Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Collins LM, Mermelstein R, Fraser D, Fiore MC, Baker TB. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Optimized Smoking Treatment Delivered in Primary Care. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2018 Sep 13;52(10):854-864.
Summary: Participants who got the abstinence-optimized treatment (3 weeks of pre-quit mini-lozenges, 26 weeks of nicotine patch + mini-lozenges, three in-person and eight phone counseling sessions, and 7–11 automated calls to prompt medication use) had significantly higher self-reported quit rates than recommended usual care (10 minutes of in-person counseling, 8 weeks of nicotine patch, and referral to quitline services). A smoking-cessation treatment optimized via Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) meaningfully enhanced cessation rates among smokers seen in primary care clinics.
Piper ME, Schlam TR, Fraser D, Oguss M, Cook JW. Implementing Factorial Experiments In Real-World Settings: Lessons Learned While Engineering an Optimized Smoking Cessation Treatment. Chapter in the book, Optimization of Behavioral, Biobehavioral, and Biomedical Interventions: Advanced Topics. Edited by Collins LM, Kugler KC. New York, NY: Springer; 2018; pp. 23-45.
Summary: The multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) is an efficient method to engineer effective treatment packages. MOST helps researchers understand intervention component effects and how these components can best be combined into an optimized treatment package and then evaluated. This chapter provides evidence for the feasibility of conducting large factorial experiments in real-world settings and shares strategies for successfully carrying out this type of research. It includes practical information on implementation considerations.
Schlam TR, Cook JW, Baker TB, Hayes-Birchler T, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Piper ME. Can We Increase Smokers’ Adherence to Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Does This Help Them Quit? Psychopharmacology. 2018 Apr 25. Jul;235(7):2065-2075.
Summary: Researchers described what are, to the best of the team’s knowledge, the most comprehensive data collected to date on adherence to nicotine-replacement therapy. The study found low adherence overall. Adherence to the patch and nicotine gum was strongly related to abstinence, but the causal basis of this relation is unclear. The study also found that e-Monitoring Counseling slightly increased gum use but did not increase abstinence. Extended-length medication (26 weeks) increased abstinence, compared to standard-length medication (8 weeks).
Shirley D, Thibodeau L, Catz SL, McCoy K, Jorenby DE, Safdar N, Sosman JM. Cessation-related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills in Smokers Living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2018;30(2):131-139.
Summary: Forty percent of individuals living with HIV are smokers. Researchers surveyed patients from two Wisconsin HIV-care clinics regarding smoking, using open-ended interviews. Eighty percent of the individuals reported negative feelings toward their doctor’s means of addressing their smoking. In addition, 70 percent of the participants said they never heard of, nor considered, how smoking affected their HIV medications. Use of aids to quit smoking or a telephone-based wellness intervention were acceptable to most. Providing HIV-specific information during tobacco treatment is critical.
Srivastava B, Ramsey AT, McIntosh LD, Bailey TC, Fisher SL, Fox L, Castro M, Ma Y-J, Baker TB, Chen L-S, Bierut LJ. Tobacco Use Prevalence and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy Prescription Patterns Among Hospitalized Patients by Medical Specialty. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2018 Feb 22.
Summary: Researchers identified substantial variation in prescribing practices for patients who smoke across different medical specialties and demographic groups. This suggests the need for an electronic medical record protocol that facilitates consistent tobacco-cessation pharmacotherapy treatment. It’s underutilized during hospitalization, and prescription rates vary greatly across medical specialties and patient characteristics. Hospitals may benefit from implementing policies and practices that standardize and automate the offer of smoking pharmacotherapy for all hospitalized patients who use tobacco.
Teitelbaum A, Murphy S, Akk G, Baker TB, Germann A, von Weymarn L, Bierut L, Goate A, Kharasch ED, Bloom AJ. Nicotine Dependence is Associated with Functional Variation in FMO3, an Enzyme that Metabolizes Nicotine in the Brain. Pharmacogenomics Journal. 2018;18(1):136-143.
Summary: Surprisingly, allele rs2266780 was associated with reduced nicotine dependence, specifically with a longer time to first cigarette, but not with reduced cigarette consumption. Researchers demonstrate, for the first time, nicotine N-oxidation in the human brain, mediated by FMO3 and FMO1. They show that nicotine-N-oxide modulates human α4β2 nicotinic receptor activity in vitro. These results indicate possible mechanisms for associations between the FMO3 genotype and smoking behaviors, and suggest nicotine N-oxidation as a novel target to enhance smoking cessation.
Wong S-W, Lin H-C, Piper ME, Siddiqui A, Buu A. Measuring Characteristics of E-Cigarette Consumption Among College Students. American Journal of College Health. 2018 Jul 6:1-10.
Summary: College students who vape found some of the consumption questions in national surveys difficult to answer. Switching nicotine levels, mixing flavors, co-using with alcohol and marijuana, using with others who were vaping or drinking, and vaping in a car or indoor space were all common. The participants defined “regular user” based on ownership of a device rather than on quantity/frequency. A comprehensive e-cigarette consumption measure should cover the complex characteristics that are potentially associated with negative health consequences such as flavorings, co-use and social contexts.