UW-CTRI has published findings from the Exhale Study, which included people who either smoked or smoked and vaped (dual users), in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Researchers found that dual users smoke fewer cigarettes than smokers but they are supplementing their nicotine with e-cigarette use. Dual users also have somewhat reduced exposure to at least one carcinogen.
Dual users did not plan to quit smoking or vaping.
Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Kobinsky K, Jorenby DE. Dual Users Compared to Smokers; Demographics, Dependence, and Biomarkers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2018. 2018 Oct 26.
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